Executive Agreement Effect

The presidential act of recognition of the Soviet government and the agreements that accompanied it constituted, according to justice, an international pact that the president was the only organ of international relations to conclude for the United States without consulting the Senate. Nor have state laws and directives made a difference in such a situation; While the primacy of treaties is expressly defined by the Constitution, the same rule applies to all international treaties and agreements simply because total power over international affairs belongs to the national government and is not subject to any restrictions or interference by individual states and cannot be subject.6Footnote301 U.S. at 330-31.

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