While the agreement has been welcomed by many, including French President Francois Hollande and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, criticism has also emerged. James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and climate change expert, expressed anger that most of the agreement is made up of “promises” or goals, not firm commitments.  He called the Paris talks a fraud with “nothing, only promises” and believed that only a generalized tax on CO2 emissions, which is not part of the Paris agreement, would force CO2 emissions down fast enough to avoid the worst effects of global warming.  This strategy included energy and climate policy, including the so-called 20/20/20 targets, namely a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, an increase in the market share of renewable energy to 20% and a 20% increase in energy efficiency.  The NDC partnership was launched at COP22 in Marrakech to improve cooperation so that countries have access to the technical knowledge and financial assistance they need to achieve major climate and sustainable development goals. The NDC partnership is led by a steering committee made up of industrialized and developing countries and international institutions and is supported by a support unit organized by the World Resources Institute and based in Washington, D.C. and Bonn, Germany. The NDC partnership is co-chaired by the governments of Costa Rica and the Netherlands and has 93 Member States, 21 institutional partners and 10 associate members. On October 5, 2016, when the agreement reached enough signatures to cross the threshold, U.S.
President Barack Obama said, “Even if we achieve all the goals… we will only get to part of where we need to go. He also said that “this agreement will help delay or avoid some of the worst consequences of climate change.” It will help other nations reduce their emissions over time and set bolder goals as technology progresses, all under a strong transparency system that will allow each nation to assess the progress of all other nations.   The objective of the agreement is to reduce Article 2 global warming by improving the implementation of the UNFCCC by:  b) to increase the capacity to adapt to the negative effects of climate change and to promote climate resilience and the development of low greenhouse gas emissions so as not to jeopardize food production; The Paris Agreement was launched at the signing on April 22, 2016 (Earth Day) at a ceremony in New York.  After the agreement was ratified by several EU member states in October 2016, there were enough countries that had ratified the agreement to produce enough greenhouse gases in the world for the agreement to enter into force.  The agreement came into force on November 4, 2016.  Some of the specific results of the increased attention to adjustment financing in Paris are the announcement by the G7 countries of a $420 million package for climate risk insurance and the release of a Climate Risk and Early Warning Systems (CREWS) initiative.  In 2016, the Obama administration awarded a $500 million grant to the “Green Climate Fund” as “the first part of a $3 billion commitment made at the Paris climate talks.”    To date, the Green Climate Fund has received more than $10 billion in commitments.